The 1945 Constitution explains that the State Emblem of Indonesia is the Garuda Pancasila with the motto of  “Unity in Diversity”. The Garuda Pancasila song was composed by Sudharnoto as a compulsory song of the Indonesian struggle.

Garuda Pancasila song lyrics:

Garuda Pancasila
Akulah pendukungmu
Patriot proklamasi
Sedia berkorban untukmu
Pancasila dasar negara
Rakyat adil makmur sentosa
Pribadi bangsaku
Ayo maju maju
Ayo maju maju
Ayo maju maju



The Meaning of the Garuda Pancasila Emblem
The Garuda bird symbolizes strength. The golden color on the Garuda bird symbolizes glory. The shield in the middle symbolizes the defense of the Indonesian nation. Each symbol on the shield symbolizes each precept of the Pancasila, namely:

The Star symbolizes the principle of Belief in One Supreme God [1st precept].
The Chain symbolizes the principle of Just and Civilized Humanity [2nd precept].
The Banyan tree symbolizes the principle of The Unity of Indonesia [3rd precept].
The Bull’s Head symbolizes the principle of Democracy that is Guided by the Inner Wisdom in the Unanimity Arising Out of Deliberations Amongst Representatives [4th precept].
The Rice and Cotton symbolize the principle of Social Justice for the Entire People of Indonesia [5th precept].

The Red and white colors symbolize the colors of the Indonesian national flag. The red color means courage and the white color means purity. The thick black line across the shield symbolizes the Indonesian territory traversed by the Equator Line.

The meaning of the number of feathers on the Garuda Bird
The total number of feathers symbolizes the date of the proclamation of Indonesian independence (17 August 1945):
The number of feathers on each wing totals 17;
The number of feathers on the tail totals 8;
The number of feathers below the shield / base of tail totals 19; and
The number of feathers on the neck totals 45.
The garuda bird clutches a scroll bearing the state motto of Indonesia, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, which means “unity in diversity”, although different, yet one”.

The National Flag

bendera_indoA State that is independent is very proud to fly its State flag. Similarly, the Indonesian nation is proud to have the red and white colors as the colors of the flag of Indonesia. Red means courage. White means purity. This pride of the Indonesian nation is even stipulated in Article 35 of the 1945 Constitution, which states that the flag of the State of Indonesia is the Red and White.

The National Anthem

The Indonesia Raya (Great Indonesia) song is the national anthem of the Indonesian nation, and it was composed by W.R. Supratman in 1924. The Youth Pledge Day, on 28 October 1928, was the very first time that the Indonesia Raya song was sung. On 17 August 1945, on the Indonesian independence day, the Indonesia Raya song was sung, and has, ever since, been designated as the national anthem of Indonesia.

Composed by W.R. Supratman

Indonesia tanah airku
Tanah tumpah darahku
Di sanalah aku berdiri
Jadi pandu ibuku
Indonesia kebangsaanku
Bangsa dan Tanah Airku
Marilah kita berseru
Indonesia bersatu

Hiduplah tanahku
Hiduplah negriku
Bangsaku Rakyatku semuanya
Bangunlah jiwanya
Bangunlah badannya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

Indonesia Raya
Merdeka Merdeka
Tanahku negriku yang kucinta

Indonesia Raya
Merdeka Merdeka
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya

Indonesia Raya
Merdeka Merdeka
Tanahku negriku yang kucinta

Indonesia Raya
Merdeka Merdeka
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya

Indonesia Tanah yang mulia
Tanah kita yang kaya
Di sanalah aku berada Untuk slama-lamanya
Indonesia Tanah pusaka Pusaka Kita semuanya
Marilah kita mendoa Indonesia bahagia

Suburlah Tanahnya Suburlah jiwanya
Bangsanya Rakyatnya semuanya
Sadarlah hatinya Sadarlah budinya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

Indonesia Tanah yang suci Tanah kita yang sakti
Disanalah aku berdiri Njaga ibu sejati
Indonesia! Tanah berseri Tanah yang aku sayangi
Marilah kita berjanji Indonesia abadi

Slamatlah Rakyatnya Slamatlah putranya
Pulaunya lautnya semuanya
Majulah Negrinya Majulah Pandunya
Untuk Indonesia Raya

Indonesia is led by a President who acts as the Head of the State and Chief Executive. In exercising his/her duties, the President is assisted by a Vice-President.

The Indonesian President and Vice-President, in pair, are elected through the Presidential Elections every five years. They govern for a five-year term and can be re-elected for a second term. The term of the President and Vice-President is limited to two terms only.

Since its independence on August 17, 1945, Indonesia has been led by seven Presidents;

  1. Soekarno (1945-1968);
  2. Soeharto (1968-1997);
  3. B.J. Habibie (1997-1999);
  4. Abdurrahman Wahid (1999-2001);
  5. Megawati Soekarnoputri (2001-2004);
  6. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (2004-2014);
  7. Joko Widodo (2014-Present).

Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world with a total number of 17,508 islands according to the Indonesian Naval Hydro-Oceanographic office. The archipelago is on a crossroads between two oceans, the Pacific and the Indian Ocean,
and bridges two continents, Asia and Australia.

This strategic position has always influenced the cultural, social, political and economic life of the country. The territory of the Republic of Indonesia stretches from 6008’ North latitude to 11015’ South latitude and from 94045’ to 141005’ East longitude.

The Indonesian Sea area is four times greater than its land area, which is about 1.9 million sq. km. The sea area is about 7.9 million sq. km (including an exclusive economic zone) and constitutes about 81% of the total area of the country.

The five main islands are: Sumatra, which is about 473,606 sq km in size, the most fertile and densely populated islands; Java / Madura, 132.107 sq km; Kalimantan, which comprises two-thirds of the island of Borneo and measures 539.460 sq km; Sulawesi, 189.216 sq km; and Papua, 421,981 sq km which is part of the world’s second largest island: New Guinea. Indonesia’s other islands are smaller in size.

The archipelago is divided into three groups. The islands of Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan, and the small islands in-between, lie on the Sunda Shelf which begins on the coasts of Malaysia

and Indo China, where the sea depth does not exceed 700 feet. Papua which is part of the island of New Guinea, and the Aru Islands, lie on the Sahul Shelf, which stretches northwards from the Australian coast.

Here the sea depth is similar to that of the Sunda Shelf. Located between these two shelves is the island group of Nusa Tenggara, Maluku and Sulawesi, where the sea depth reaches 15,000 feet. Coastal plains have been developed around the islands of Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Papua. The land area is generally covered by thick tropical rain forests, where fertile soils are continuously replenished by volcanic eruptions like those on the island of Java.